Introduction. The aim of this study was to evaluate the serum levels of resistin and insulin-like growth factor-1 (IGF-1) and and also the potential relationship between thyroid function and levels of resistin and IGF-1 in hypothyroid and hyperthyroid patients. Methods. Fifteen cases of hypothyroid (HT), 16 of subclinically hypothyroid (SCHT), 15 of hyperthyroid (HrT), 15 of subclinically hyperthyroid (SCHrT), and 17 healthy individuals have been included in the study. Serum resistin levels were measured using enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay and IGF-1 and thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH) levels by chemiluminescence method. Results. Resistin levels in total HT group were significantly higher than in controls (12.66 ± 6.04 and 8.45 ± 2.90 ng/mL, resp.). In SCHrT subgroup resistin levels were significantly higher than those of controls (14.88 ± 7.73 and 8.45 ± 2.90 ng/mL, resp.). IGF-1 levels were significantly lower in total HT than in total HrT and control groups (117.22 ± 52.03, 155.17 ± 51.67, and 184.00 ± 49.73 ng/mL, resp.). Furthermore IGF-1 levels in HT subgroup were significantly lower compared to controls (123.70 ± 44.03 and 184 ± 49.73 ng/mL, resp.). In SCHT subgroup IGF-1 levels were significantly lower than those of control and SCHrT groups (111.11 ± 59.35, 184.00 ± 49.73, and 166.60 ± 47.87 ng/mL, resp.). There were significant correlations between IGF-1 and TSH in HT subgroup and between resistin and TSH in total HrT group. Conclusion. It was concluded that increased resistin levels are directly related to thyroid dysfunction, and GH/IGF-1 axis is influenced in clinically or subclinically hypothyroidism patients.