Background: Prophylactic occlusion of extrahepatic vessels prior to radioembolization or chemotherapy infusion is an effective method to prevent gastrointestinal complications. Unfortunately, vascular recanalization can occur.
Purpose: To retrospectively determine the rate and technical factors associated with gastroduodenal artery (GDA) recanalization after transcatheter occlusion with fibered coils.
Material and methods: Patients with hepatic malignancy who underwent fibered coil occlusion of the GDA origin for radioembolization or hepatic arterial chemotherapy infusion with at least one subsequent hepatic angiogram between March 2006 and January 2011 were included. One hundred and forty-two patients (men, 71; women, 71) met study criteria. Hepatic arteriograms were reviewed to determine the frequency of arterial recanalization. Additional parameters included: patients' demographics, GDA diameter, length of coil pack, distance between GDA origin and most cephalad coil, persistent flow at the conclusion of the initial GDA occlusion procedure, platelet count, and international normalized ratio (INR). Chi-square test and pooled t-test were used to compare the two groups. Prospective multivariate analysis was performed with a logistic regression model.
Results: Twenty-nine of 142 patients (20.4%) experienced GDA recanalization. The distance between the GDA origin and most cephalad coil was significantly greater in the recanalization group than in the non-recanalization group (9.6 mm vs. 12.6 mm, P = 0.01). A prospective multivariate analysis established that the further the coil was from the origin the more likely the GDA was to recanalize. The two groups did not differ on the basis of any other factors examined.
Conclusion: GDA origin recanalization after fibered coil occlusion is common. The distance between the GDA origin and most cephalad coil appears to be a predisposing factor for recanalization. Familiarity with this phenomenon is beneficial to reduce the likelihood of gastrointestinal tract complications during hepatic locoregional therapy.
Keywords: Abdomen/GI; angiography; embolization; interventional; liver.