A conceptual and disease model framework for osteoporotic kyphosis

Osteoporos Int. 2013 Sep;24(9):2423-32. doi: 10.1007/s00198-013-2317-6. Epub 2013 Mar 28.


This paper presents a multi-method research project to develop a conceptual framework for measuring outcomes in studies of osteoporotic kyphosis. The research involved literature research and qualitative interviews among clinicians who treat patients with kyphosis and among patients with the condition.

Introduction: Kyphosis due to at least one vertebral compression fracture is prevalent among osteoporotic patients, resulting in well-documented symptoms and impact on functioning and well-being. A three-part study led to development of a conceptual measurement framework for comprehensive assessment of symptoms, impact, and treatment benefit for kyphosis.

Methods: A literature-based disease model (DM) was developed and tested with physicians (n = 10) and patients (n = 10), and FDA guidelines were used to develop a final disease model and a conceptual framework.

Results: The DM included signs, symptoms, causes/triggers, exacerbations, and functional status associated with kyphosis. The DM was largely confirmed, but physicians and patients added several concepts related to impact on functioning, and some concepts were not confirmed and removed from the DM.

Conclusions: This study confirms the need for more comprehensive assessment of health outcomes in kyphosis, as most current studies omit key concepts.

Publication types

  • Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't

MeSH terms

  • Activities of Daily Living
  • Aged
  • Attitude of Health Personnel
  • Attitude to Health
  • Female
  • Humans
  • Kyphosis / diagnosis
  • Kyphosis / etiology*
  • Kyphosis / physiopathology
  • Kyphosis / therapy*
  • Male
  • Mental Disorders / etiology
  • Middle Aged
  • Models, Biological*
  • Osteoporosis / complications
  • Osteoporotic Fractures / complications*
  • Outcome Assessment, Health Care / methods
  • Practice Guidelines as Topic
  • Spinal Fractures / complications*