Background: Seizure is one of the common causes of childhood hospitalization with significant mortality and morbidity. There is limited data regarding acute seizures episodes form the developing countries. Current study aims to find the common etiology of seizure and classify seizure types in various age groups presenting to tertiary center in Western Nepal.
Methods: This was a hospital based retrospective study carried out in the data retrieved from the records maintained in the Department of Pediatrics, Manipal Teaching Hospital, Pokhara from 1st July 2007 to 31st July 2011.Variables collected were demographics, clinical presentations, laboratory tests, brain imaging studies, electroencephalography, diagnosis and hospital course.
Results: A total of 551 patients were admitted for seizures with 338 (61.3%) males and 213 (38.7%) females. Among these patients, 295 (53.5%) presented with fever and 317 (57.5%) of children were less than 5 years of age. Generalized tonic-clonic seizures were the most common seizure type (69.9%). Seizure disorder (33.4%), febrile seizures (30.7%), CNS infections and neurocysticercosis were common etiologies. Abnormal brain images were noted in 111 (45.9%) of 242 patients and most common abnormality was neurocysticercosis 66 (59.5%).
Conclusion: CNS infections and febrile convulsions were common causes of seizures in febrile children. Neuroimaging should be advised in all afebrile children for the diagnosis of neurocysticercosis. Children diagnosed as seizure disorder require long term follow up studies including neurophysiologic studies.