Surgical treatment for psychiatric disorders has been revitalized for the past ten years after deep brain stimulation (DBS) had shown its efficacy for the treatment of neurological disorders such as Parkinson's disease. In the field of psychiatric disorders, DBS has been first used for obsessive compulsive disorder and treatment-resistant depression. Only recently it has been proposed for the treatment of addiction. Whatever the disease, the selected target is a constant question. In this review, we present theoretical, empirical and technical arguments in favor of targeting the subthalamic nucleus as the best candidate over other areas for DBS in the treatment of drug addiction.
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