Neurofeedback is a machine-mediated noninvasive treatment modality based on the analysis and "feeding back" of electroencephalogram brainwaves, which has shown efficacy with a variety of central nervous system-based problems. It has special application where patients have adverse reaction to psychopharmacologic treatments and psychotherapy, cognitive behavioral therapy, and dialectical behavior therapy have proved ineffective. Treatment modalities include active forms based on operant conditioning, involving a subject's response to stimuli. Neurofeedback is strong in clinical confirmations of efficacy (case studies) and has thus far limited controlled studies in the peer-reviewed journals.
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