The Goto-Kakizaki (GK) rat is an animal model for spontaneous-onset, non-obese type 2 diabetes. Despite abundant evidence about disorders in metabolism, little information is available about fatty acid metabolism in the liver of GK rats. This study aimed to investigate the characteristics of the fatty acid profile, particularly MUFA, and the mechanism underlying the alterations in fatty acid profiles in the liver of GK rats. The activities of enzymes that participate in the biosynthesis of MUFA, expressions of genes encoding these enzymes, and the fatty acid profile in the liver were compared with those of obese Zucker (fa/fa) (ZF) rats, which are obese and non-diabetic. Stearoyl-CoA desaturase (SCD) activity and SCD1 gene expression were considerably up-regulated in GK rats, and these levels were largely comparable to those in ZF rats. However, the proportions and contents of oleic acid and palmitoleic acid were very low considering the highly elevated activity of SCD in the liver of GK rats, when compared with ZF rats. Palmitoyl-CoA chain elongation (PCE) activity and fatty acid elongase (Elovl6) gene expression were markedly up-regulated in ZF rats, whereas PCE activity was up-regulated much less and Elovl6 gene expression was unchanged in GK rats. These results suggest the possibility that up-regulation of gene expression of Elovl6 along with SCD1 is indispensable to elevate the proportions and contents of oleic acid in the liver.