Previously, neutrophils were largely ignored in the pattern recognition receptor (PRR) signaling field. However, interest in neutrophil biology has been revitalized by emerging roles for neutrophils in promoting protective and pathogenic T helper (Th)17-driven immune responses and in orchestrating innate and adaptive immunity via cytokine/chemokine production. Although it was originally assumed that neutrophils are transcriptionally inert and their short lifespan limits their ability to respond to PRR agonists, the past 5 years has seen tremendous advances in neutrophil PRR signaling that have shifted this paradigm. Here, we review recent findings that demonstrate that neutrophils express a broad repertoire of PRRs, respond dynamically to their stimulation during infection and inflammation, and that neutrophil PRRs are key regulators of in vivo host immune responses.
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