Diagnostically challenging cases: what are atypia and dysplasia?

Urol Clin North Am. 2013 May;40(2):281-93. doi: 10.1016/j.ucl.2013.01.006. Epub 2013 Feb 26.


This article addresses the spectrum of atypia and dysplasia within the bladder epithelium and the diagnostic categories developed to further classify challenging lesions. In addition, the effects of inflammation, specific therapies, and instrumentation on the bladder mucosa as well as the associated difficulty in achieving the appropriate diagnosis are also discussed.

MeSH terms

  • Cystitis / pathology
  • Humans
  • Terminology as Topic
  • Urinary Bladder / pathology
  • Urinary Bladder Neoplasms / pathology*
  • Urinary Bladder Neoplasms / therapy
  • Urothelium / pathology