The interrelationships between pathological processes and emerging clinical phenotypes in Alzheimer's disease (AD) are important yet complicated to study, because the brain is a complex network where local disruptions can have widespread effects. Recently, properties in brain networks obtained with neuroimaging techniques have been studied in AD with tools from graph theory. However, the interpretation of graph alterations remains unclear, because the definition of connectivity depends on the imaging modality used. Here we examined which graph properties have been consistently reported to be disturbed in AD studies, using a heuristically defined "graph space" to investigate which theoretical models can best explain graph alterations in AD. Findings from structural and functional graphs point to a loss of highly connected areas in AD. However, studies showed considerable variability in reported group differences of most graph properties. This suggests that brain graphs might not be isometric, which complicates the interpretation of graph measurements. We highlight confounding factors such as differences in graph construction methods and provide recommendations for future research.
Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.