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Review
, 2013 (3), CD009929

Nidotherapy for People With Schizophrenia

Affiliations
Review

Nidotherapy for People With Schizophrenia

Ian J Chamberlain et al. Cochrane Database Syst Rev.

Abstract

Background: Nidotherapy is a therapeutic method that principally aims to modify the environment of people with schizophrenia and other serious mental illnesses, whilst working in conjunction with, or alongside other treatments. Rather than focusing on direct treatments or interventions, the aim is to help the individual identify the need for, and work to effect environmental change with the aim of minimising the impact of any form of mental disorder on the individual and society.

Objectives: To review the effects of nidotherapy added to standard care, compared with standard care or no treatment for people with schizophrenia or related disorders.

Search methods: We searched the Cochrane Schizophrenia Group Trials Register (December 2011) and supplemented this by contacting relevant study authors, handsearching nidotherapy articles and manually searching reference lists.

Selection criteria: All randomised controlled trials (RCTs) that compared nidotherapy with standard care or no treatment.

Data collection and analysis: We independently selected and quality assessed potential trials. We reliably extracted data. We calculated risk ratios (RR) and 95% confidence intervals (CI) of homogeneous dichotomous data. Scale data were only extracted from valid scales. For non-skewed continuous endpoint data, we estimated mean difference (MD) between groups. Skewed data have been presented in the Data and analyses as 'other data', with acknowledged means and standard deviations. We assessed risk of bias for the included study and used GRADE to create a 'Summary of findings' table.

Main results: We included only one study that compared nidotherapy-enhanced standard care with standard care alone (total 52 participants); this study was classified by its authors as a 'pilot study'. The duration of the included study was 18 months in total. The single study examined the short-term (up to six months) and medium-term (between six and 12 months) effects of nidotherapy-enhanced standard care versus standard care.Nidotherapy-enhanced standard care was favoured over standard care for social functioning in both the short term (n = 50, 1 RCT, MD -2.10, 95% CI -4.66 to 0.46) and medium term (n = 37, 1 RCT, MD -1.70, 95% CI -4.60 to 1.20, Very low quality); however, these results did not reach statistical significance. Results concerning engagement with non-inpatient services favoured the intervention group in both the short term (n = 50, 1 RCT, MD 2.00, 95% CI 0.13 to 3.87) and medium term (n = 37, 1 RCT, MD 1.70, 95% CI -0.09 to 3.49), with statistical significance evident in the short term, but not in the medium term. Results of people leaving the study early favoured the intervention in the short term (n = 52, 1 RCT, RR 0.86, 95% CI 0.06 to 12.98), with slight favour of the control group at medium term (n = 50, 1 RCT, RR 0.99, 95% CI 0.39 to 2.54); again, these results did not reach statistical significance. Results for the adverse effects/events of death (measured by 12 months) favoured the intervention (n = 52, 1 RCT, RR 0.29, 95% CI 0.01 to 6.74, Very low quality) but with no statistical significance. Skewed results were available for mental state, service use, and economic outcomes, and present a mixed picture of the benefits of nidotherapy.

Authors' conclusions: Further research is needed into the possible benefits or harms of this newly-formulated therapy. Until such research is available, patients, clinicians, managers and policymakers should consider it an experimental approach.

Conflict of interest statement

None known.

Figures

Figure 1
Figure 1
Study flow diagram (all searches)
Figure 2
Figure 2
'Risk of bias' summary: review authors' judgements about each risk of bias item for each included study.
Analysis 1.1
Analysis 1.1
Comparison 1 NIDOTHERAPY‐ENHANCED STANDARD CARE vs STANDARD CARE, Outcome 1 Functioning ‐ specific ‐ social ‐ change in average score (SFQ‐KW, better = low).
Analysis 1.3
Analysis 1.3
Comparison 1 NIDOTHERAPY‐ENHANCED STANDARD CARE vs STANDARD CARE, Outcome 3 Service outcomes: 1. Engagement with non‐inpatient services ‐ change in average score (EAS, better = high).
Analysis 1.9
Analysis 1.9
Comparison 1 NIDOTHERAPY‐ENHANCED STANDARD CARE vs STANDARD CARE, Outcome 9 Leaving the study early (reasons unclear).
Analysis 1.10
Analysis 1.10
Comparison 1 NIDOTHERAPY‐ENHANCED STANDARD CARE vs STANDARD CARE, Outcome 10 Adverse effects/events ‐ death.

Update of

  • Cochrane Database Syst Rev. doi: 10.1002/14651858.CD009929

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