Maintaining a social-emotional intervention and its benefits for institutionalized children

Child Dev. Sep-Oct 2013;84(5):1734-49. doi: 10.1111/cdev.12098. Epub 2013 Apr 1.


This article reports the maintenance of one of the largest interventions conducted in St. Petersburg (Russian Federation) orphanages for children birth to 4 years using regular caregiving staff. One orphanage received training plus structural changes, another training only, and a third business as usual. The intervention produced substantial differences between these institutions on the Home Observation for Measurement of the Environment (HOME) Inventory and on the Battelle Developmental Inventory scores for children. These institutional differences in HOME scores (N = 298) and Battelle scores for children (N = 357) departing the institutions for families in St. Petersburg and the United States were maintained for at least 6 years after the intervention project. This result may be associated with certain features of the intervention and activities conducted during the follow-up interval.

Publication types

  • Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural

MeSH terms

  • Caregivers / education
  • Child Care / standards*
  • Child Development
  • Child, Institutionalized / psychology*
  • Child, Preschool
  • Emotions*
  • Humans
  • Infant
  • Interpersonal Relations
  • Longitudinal Studies
  • Orphanages / statistics & numerical data
  • Pediatrics / education
  • Personnel Turnover
  • Psychiatric Status Rating Scales
  • Russia