We used a monoclonal antibody (10A8), derived from mice immunized with fractions enriched in Golgi apparatus of rat brain neurons, to isolate an intrinsic membrane sialoglycoprotein of 160 KD from rat brain. By immunoelectron microscopy the sialoglycoprotein, named MG-160, was localized in medical cisternae of the Golgi apparatus of neurons, glia, adenohypophysis, and cultured rat pheochromocytoma (PC 12). The monoclonal antibody (MAb) reacted only with rat tissues. Because the epitope(s) recognized by a monoclonal antibody may be restricted, localization of an antigen by a single MAb may not reflect the extent of the distribution of antigen in various species and tissues. Therefore, to further investigate the presence and localization of MG-160 or of an antigenically related protein in several species and tissues, we used a polyclonal antiserum raised against MG-160 purified by antibody (10A8) affinity chromatography. Immunoblots of crude microsomal fractions from rat brain probed with the antiserum against MG-160 showed two to three prominent bands of approximately 160, 150, and 68 KD. Immunoblots of crude microsomal fractions from human, chicken, and frog brains showed prominent bands of 130-140 and 68 KD. Immunoblots of crude membrane fractions from Saccharomyces cerevisiae showed prominent bands of approximately 110-120 and 80 KD. Light microscopic immunocytochemical studies with frog, chicken, mouse, rat, rabbit, bovine, and human brains and with several other rat and human tissues showed a staining pattern consistent with the Golgi apparatus. Immunoelectron microscopy with rat and human brain and with rat myocardium and pituitary showed prominent and exclusive staining of cis, medial, and occasionally trans cisternae of the Golgi apparatus. The cisternae of the trans Golgi network were not stained. These findings are consistent with the hypothesis that a polypeptide related to MG-160 is present in the Golgi apparatus of several tissues in human, rodents, chicken, and frog and possibly in Saccharomyces cerevisiae. The antiserum to MG-160 represents a reliable reagent for immunohistochemical visualization of the Golgi apparatus in brain and several other human tissues obtained at autopsy, fixed with Bouin's, and embedded in paraffin.