Background: End-stage renal disease (ESRD) during infancy has been associated with poor short-term neurocognitive outcomes. Limited information exists regarding long-term outcomes.
Methods: Neurocognitive outcomes for 12 patients diagnosed with ESRD during the first 16 months of life were assessed. Nine patients (mean age: 11 years) were compared to their healthy siblings (mean age: 10 years) on measures of intellectual and executive functioning, memory, and academic achievement using paired-samples t tests.
Results: Patients' Full Scale IQ (FSIQ) scores (M = 78, SD = 16.1) were significantly lower than sibling controls (M = 94, SD = 18.9; p < 0.03). For patients, FSIQ negatively correlated with total months on dialysis (r = -0.6, p < 0.04), as did WISC-IV Processing Speed (r = -0.6, p < 0.05). Patients' scores on the Metacognition Index of the BRIEF (M = 61.4, SD = 16.3) were significantly higher (indicating greater risk for dysfunction) than siblings (M = 46.7, SD = 6.4; p < 0.04). Patients' scores (M = 84, SD = 19) on the WIAT-II-A Total Achievement were significantly lower than siblings (M = 103, SD = 20, p < 0.01). Younger age at transplant was associated with higher scores on measures of Processing Speed (r = -0.7, p < 0.05), as well as higher scores on measures of executive functioning, memory, and academic achievement.
Conclusions: In summary, patients diagnosed with ESRD as infants had intellectual and metacognitive functioning significantly lower than sibling controls. Fewer months on dialysis and younger age at transplant were associated with better outcomes.