Uterine leiomyomas (or fibroids) are the most common tumors in women of reproductive age. Early studies of two familial cancer syndromes, the multiple cutaneous and uterine leiomyomatosis (MCUL1), and the hereditary leiomyomatosis and renal cell cancer (HLRCC), implicated FH, a gene on chromosome 1q43 encoding the tricarboxylic acid cycle fumarate hydratase enzyme. The role of this metabolic housekeeping gene in tumorigenesis is still a matter of debate and pseudo-hypoxia has been suggested as a pathological mechanism. Inactivating FH mutations have rarely been observed in the nonsyndromic and common form of fibroids; however, loss of heterozygosity across FH appeared as a significant event in the pathogenesis of a subset of these tumors. To assess the role of FH and the linked genes in nonsyndromic uterine fibroids, we explored a two-megabase interval spanning FH in the NIEHS Uterine fibroid study, a cross-sectional study of fibroids in 1152 premenopausal women. Association mapping with a dense set of single nucleotide polymorphisms revealed several peaks of association (p = 10(-2)-8.10(-5)) with the risk and/or growth of fibroids. In particular, genes encoding factors suspected (cytosolic FH) or known (EXO1 - exonuclease 1) to be involved in DNA mismatch repair emerged as candidate susceptibility genes whereas those acting in the autophagy/apoptosis (MAP1LC3C - microtubule-associated protein) or signal transduction (RGS7 - Regulator of G-protein and PLD5- Phospoholipase D) appeared to affect tumor growth. Furthermore, body mass index, a suspected confounder altered significantly but unpredictably the association with the candidate genes in the African and European American populations, suggesting the presence of a major obesity gene in the studied region. With the high potential for occult tumors in common conditions such as fibroids, validation of our data in family-based studies is needed.