The aim of this study was to investigate whether hATMSCs protect against cyclosporine (CsA)-induced renal injury. CsA (7.5 mg/kg) and hATMSCs (3×10(6)/5 mL) were administered alone and together to rats for 4 weeks. The effect of hATMSCs on CsA-induced renal injury was evaluated by assessing renal function, interstitial fibrosis, infiltration of inflammatory cells, and apoptotic cell death. Four weeks of CsA-treatment produced typical chronic CsA-nephropathy. Combined treatment with CsA and hATMSCs did not prevent these effects and showed a trend toward further renal deterioration. To evaluate why hATMSCs aggravated CsA-induced renal injury, we measured oxidative stress, a major mechanism of CsA-induced renal injury. Both urine and serum 8-hydroxydeoxyguanosine(8-OHdG) levels were higher in the CsA+hATMSCs group than in the CsA group (P<0.05). An in vitro study showed similar results. Although the rate of apoptosis did not differ significantly between HK-2 cells cultured in hATMSCs-conditioned medium and those cultured in DMEM, addition of CsA resulted in greater apoptosis in HK-2 cells cultured in hATMSCs-conditioned medium. Addition of CsA increased oxidative stress in the hATMSCs-conditioned medium. The results of our study suggest that treatment with hATMSCs may aggravate CsA-induced renal injury because hATMSCs cause oxidative stress in the presence of CsA.