Background: To report on a prospective, investigator-driven, phase II study on lapatinib in epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR)-positive advanced chordoma patients.
Patients and methods: From December 2009 to January 2012, 18 advanced progressing chordoma patients entered this study (median age: 61 years; disease extent: metastatic 72% and locally advanced 28%). Epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) expression and activation were evaluated by immunohistochemistry and/or phospho-arrays, real-time polimerase chain reaction, fluorescence immunostaining. Fluorescence in situ hybridization analysis was also carried out. Patients received lapatinib 1500 mg/day (mean dose intensity = 1282 mg/day), until progression or toxicity. The primary study end point was response rate (RR) as per Choi criteria. Secondary end points were RR by Response Evaluation Criteria in Solid Tumor (RECIST), overall survival, progression-free survival (PFS) and clinical benefit rate (CBR; RECIST complete response + partial response (PR) + stable disease (SD) ≥ 6 months).
Results: All patients were evaluable for response. Six (33.3%) patients had PR and 7 (38.9%) SD, as their best Choi responses, corresponding to RECIST SD in all cases. Median PFS by Choi was 6 [interquartile (IQ) range 3-8] months. Median PFS by RECIST was 8 (IQ range 4-12) months, with a 22% CBR.
Conclusions: This phase II study showed a modest antitumor activity of lapatinib in chordoma. The clinical exploitation of EGFR targeting in chordoma needs to be further investigated, both clinically and preclinically. Clinical trial Registration No: EU Clinical Trials Register trial no. 2009-014456-29.
Keywords: EGFR; chemotherapy; chordoma; lapatinib; sarcoma; tyrosine kinase.