Hydrated interfacial ions and electrons

Annu Rev Phys Chem. 2013;64:533-52. doi: 10.1146/annurev-physchem-040412-110038.


Charged particles such as hydrated ions and transient hydrated electrons, the simplest anionic reducing agents in water, and the special hydronium and hydroxide ions at water interfaces play an important role in many fields of science, such as atmospheric chemistry, radiation chemistry, and biology, as well as biochemistry. This article focuses on these species near hydrophobic interfaces of water, such as the air or vacuum interface of water or water protein/membrane interfaces. Ions at interfaces as well as solvated electrons have been reviewed frequently during the past decade. Although all species have been known for some time with seemingly familiar features, recently the picture in all cases became increasingly diffuse rather than clearer. The current account gives a critical state-of-the art overview of what is known and what remains to be understood and investigated about hydrated interfacial ions and electrons.

Publication types

  • Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • Review

MeSH terms

  • Air / analysis
  • Electrons*
  • Hydrophobic and Hydrophilic Interactions
  • Hydroxides / chemistry*
  • Models, Molecular
  • Onium Compounds / chemistry*
  • Surface Properties
  • Water / chemistry*


  • Hydroxides
  • Onium Compounds
  • Water
  • hydronium ion
  • hydroxide ion