Deficiency in SLC25A1, encoding the mitochondrial citrate carrier, causes combined D-2- and L-2-hydroxyglutaric aciduria

Am J Hum Genet. 2013 Apr 4;92(4):627-31. doi: 10.1016/j.ajhg.2013.03.009.


The Krebs cycle is of fundamental importance for the generation of the energetic and molecular needs of both prokaryotic and eukaryotic cells. Both enantiomers of metabolite 2-hydroxyglutarate are directly linked to this pivotal biochemical pathway and are found elevated not only in several cancers, but also in different variants of the neurometabolic disease 2-hydroxyglutaric aciduria. Recently we showed that cancer-associated IDH2 germline mutations cause one variant of 2-hydroxyglutaric aciduria. Complementary to these findings, we now report recessive mutations in SLC25A1, the mitochondrial citrate carrier, in 12 out of 12 individuals with combined D-2- and L-2-hydroxyglutaric aciduria. Impaired mitochondrial citrate efflux, demonstrated by stable isotope labeling experiments and the absence of SLC25A1 in fibroblasts harboring certain mutations, suggest that SLC25A1 deficiency is pathogenic. Our results identify defects in SLC25A1 as a cause of combined D-2- and L-2-hydroxyglutaric aciduria.

MeSH terms

  • Amino Acid Sequence
  • Anion Transport Proteins / genetics*
  • Biomarkers / analysis
  • Brain Diseases, Metabolic, Inborn / etiology*
  • Brain Diseases, Metabolic, Inborn / metabolism
  • Brain Diseases, Metabolic, Inborn / pathology
  • Case-Control Studies
  • Cells, Cultured
  • Chromatography, Liquid
  • Citric Acid / metabolism*
  • Exome / genetics
  • Female
  • Fibroblasts / metabolism
  • Fibroblasts / pathology
  • Genes, Recessive*
  • Glutarates / urine
  • Humans
  • Male
  • Mitochondria / metabolism*
  • Mitochondrial Proteins / genetics*
  • Molecular Sequence Data
  • Mutation / genetics*
  • Phenotype
  • Protein Structure, Tertiary
  • Retrospective Studies
  • Sequence Homology, Amino Acid
  • Stereoisomerism
  • Tandem Mass Spectrometry


  • Anion Transport Proteins
  • Biomarkers
  • Glutarates
  • Mitochondrial Proteins
  • Slc25a1 protein, human
  • alpha-hydroxyglutarate
  • Citric Acid

Supplementary concepts

  • 2-Hydroxyglutaricaciduria