Highly sensitive detection of urinary cadmium to assess personal exposure

Anal Chim Acta. 2013 Apr 22;773:45-51. doi: 10.1016/j.aca.2013.02.034. Epub 2013 Mar 1.


A series of Boron-Doped Diamond (BDD) ultramicroelectrode arrays were fabricated and investigated for their performance as electrochemical sensors to detect trace level metals such as cadmium. The steady-state diffusion behavior of these sensors was validated using cyclic voltammetry followed by electrochemical detection of cadmium in water and in human urine to demonstrate high sensitivity (>200 μA ppb(-1) cm(-2)) and low background current (<4 nA). When an array of ultramicroelectrodes was positioned with optimal spacing, these BDD sensors showed a sigmoidal diffusion behavior. They also demonstrated high accuracy with linear dose dependence for quantification of cadmium in a certified reference river water sample from the U.S. National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST) as well as in a human urine sample spiked with 0.25-1 ppb cadmium.

Publication types

  • Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural

MeSH terms

  • Cadmium / standards
  • Cadmium / urine*
  • Calibration
  • Environmental Exposure
  • Ions / chemistry
  • Least-Squares Analysis
  • Oxidation-Reduction
  • Plastics / chemistry
  • Principal Component Analysis
  • Soil / chemistry
  • Spectrometry, Fluorescence* / standards
  • X-Rays


  • Ions
  • Plastics
  • Soil
  • Cadmium