Neurofeedback in ADHD: further pieces of the puzzle

Brain Topogr. 2014 Jan;27(1):20-32. doi: 10.1007/s10548-013-0285-y. Epub 2013 Apr 6.


Among the different neuromodulation techniques, neurofeedback (NF) is gaining increasing interest in the treatment of children with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). In this article, a methodological framework is summarised considering the training as a neuro-behavioural treatment. Randomised controlled trials are selectively reviewed. Results from two smaller-scale studies are presented with the first study comprising a tomographic analysis over the course of a slow cortical potential (SCP) training and a correlational analysis of regulation skills and clinical outcome in children with ADHD. In the second study, ADHD-related behaviour was studied in children with tic disorder who either conducted a SCP training or a theta/low-beta (12-15 Hz) training (single-blind, randomised design). Both studies provide further evidence for the specificity of NF effects in ADHD. Based on these findings, a refined model of the mechanisms contributing to the efficacy of SCP training is developed. Despite a number of open questions concerning core mechanisms, moderators and mediators, NF (theta/beta and SCP) training seems to be on its way to become a valuable and ethically acceptable module in the treatment of children with ADHD.

Publication types

  • Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't

MeSH terms

  • Adolescent
  • Attention Deficit Disorder with Hyperactivity / physiopathology
  • Attention Deficit Disorder with Hyperactivity / therapy*
  • Brain / physiology*
  • Brain Waves / physiology
  • Child
  • Humans
  • Male
  • Neurofeedback*
  • Randomized Controlled Trials as Topic