Post-traumatic hypothermia has been effective for traumatic brain injury in the laboratory setting. However, hypothermia has not shown efficacy in clinical trials. With the results of a recent clinical trial, we hypothesized that hypothermia might reduce neuronal damage in acute subdural hematoma (ASDH) by blunting the effects of reperfusion injury. Twenty rats were induced with ASDH and placed into one of four groups. The normothermia group was maintained at 37 °C throughout. In the early hypothermia group, brain temperature was reduced to 33 °C 30 min prior to craniotomy. In the late hypothermia group, brain temperature was lowered to 33 °C 30 min after decompression. The sham group had no ASDH and underwent only craniotomy with normothermia. For estimation of glial and neuronal cell damage, we analyzed serum and microdialysate (using a 100kD probe) concentrations of: glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP) and ubiquitin carboxyl--terminal hydrolase -L1 (UCH-L1). Hypothermia induced early significantly reduced the concentration of MD UCH-L1. In conclusion, hypothermia induced early may reduce neuronal cell damage in the reperfusion injury, which was induced after ASDH removal. MD UCH-L1 seems like a good -candidate for a sensitive microdialysate biomarker for -neuronal injury and outcome.