Low-dose CT (LDCT) is effective in the early detection of lung cancer, providing higher resectability and long-term survival rates. The National Lung Screening Trial shows a statistically significant mortality reduction in LDCT compared with chest radiography. The efficacy and safety of annual LDCT screening in heavy smokers must be explored, and the magnitude of benefit compared with the cost of large-scale screening. Trials in Europe have different study designs and an observational arm. Strategies to reduce lung cancer mortality should combine early detection with primary prevention and innovative biologic approaches.
Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.