Disclosure of individual pharmacogenomic results in research projects: when and what kind of information to return to research participants

Pharmacogenomics. 2013 Apr;14(6):675-88. doi: 10.2217/pgs.13.50.


In the growing field of genomics, the utility of returning certain research results to participants has become a highly debated issue. Existing guidelines are not explicit as to the kind of genomic information that should be returned to research participants. Moreover, very few current recommendations and articles in the literature address the return of pharmacogenomic results. Although genetics and pharmacogenomics have many similarities, the circumstances in which disclosure could have a benefit for the participants are different. This review aims to describe the conditions in which disclosure of pharmacogenomic results is appropriate.

Publication types

  • Review

MeSH terms

  • Genetic Research*
  • Genomics / methods*
  • Humans
  • Individuality
  • Pharmacogenetics / methods*
  • Research Subjects*