A multi-institutional, phase II open-label study of ganitumab (AMG 479) in advanced carcinoid and pancreatic neuroendocrine tumors

Endocr Relat Cancer. 2013 May 21;20(3):383-90. doi: 10.1530/ERC-12-0390. Print 2013 Jun.


The IGF pathway has been implicated in the regulation of neuroendocrine tumor (NET) growth, and preliminary studies suggested that ganitumab (AMG 479), a human MAB against IGF1R, may have antitumor activity in this setting. We performed a two-cohort phase II study of ganitumab in patients with metastatic progressive carcinoid or pancreatic NETs (pNETs). This open-label study enrolled patients (≥18 years) with metastatic low- and intermediate-grade carcinoid or pNETs. Inclusion criteria included evidence of progressive disease (by Response Evaluation Criteria in Solid Tumors (RECIST)) within 12 months of enrollment, ECOG PS 0-2, and fasting blood sugar <160 mg/dl. Prior treatments were allowed and concurrent somatostatin analog therapy was permitted. The primary endpoint was objective response. Secondary endpoints included overall survival (OS), progression-free survival (PFS), and safety. Sixty patients (30 carcinoid and 30 pNETs) were treated with ganitumab 18 mg/kg every 3 weeks, among whom 54 patients were evaluable for survival and 53 patients for response. There were no objective responders by RECIST. The median PFS duration was 6.3 months (95% CI, 4.2-12.6) for the entire cohort; 10.5 months for carcinoid patients, and 4.2 months for pNET patients. The OS rate at 12 months was 66% (95% CI, 52-77%) for the entire cohort. The median OS has not been reached. Grade 3/4 AEs were rare and consisted of hyperglycemia (4%), neutropenia (4%), thrombocytopenia (4%), and infusion reaction (1%). Although well tolerated, treatment with single-agent ganitumab failed to result in significant tumor responses among patients with metastatic well-differentiated carcinoid or pNET.

Keywords: carcinoid; neuroendocrine tumors.

Publication types

  • Clinical Trial, Phase II
  • Multicenter Study
  • Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't

MeSH terms

  • Adult
  • Aged
  • Aged, 80 and over
  • Antibodies, Monoclonal / therapeutic use*
  • Antibodies, Monoclonal, Humanized
  • Antineoplastic Agents / therapeutic use*
  • Carcinoid Tumor / drug therapy*
  • Female
  • Humans
  • Male
  • Middle Aged
  • Neuroendocrine Tumors / drug therapy*
  • Pancreatic Neoplasms / drug therapy*
  • Receptor, IGF Type 1 / immunology


  • Antibodies, Monoclonal
  • Antibodies, Monoclonal, Humanized
  • Antineoplastic Agents
  • ganitumab
  • Receptor, IGF Type 1