The IGF pathway has been implicated in the regulation of neuroendocrine tumor (NET) growth, and preliminary studies suggested that ganitumab (AMG 479), a human MAB against IGF1R, may have antitumor activity in this setting. We performed a two-cohort phase II study of ganitumab in patients with metastatic progressive carcinoid or pancreatic NETs (pNETs). This open-label study enrolled patients (≥18 years) with metastatic low- and intermediate-grade carcinoid or pNETs. Inclusion criteria included evidence of progressive disease (by Response Evaluation Criteria in Solid Tumors (RECIST)) within 12 months of enrollment, ECOG PS 0-2, and fasting blood sugar <160 mg/dl. Prior treatments were allowed and concurrent somatostatin analog therapy was permitted. The primary endpoint was objective response. Secondary endpoints included overall survival (OS), progression-free survival (PFS), and safety. Sixty patients (30 carcinoid and 30 pNETs) were treated with ganitumab 18 mg/kg every 3 weeks, among whom 54 patients were evaluable for survival and 53 patients for response. There were no objective responders by RECIST. The median PFS duration was 6.3 months (95% CI, 4.2-12.6) for the entire cohort; 10.5 months for carcinoid patients, and 4.2 months for pNET patients. The OS rate at 12 months was 66% (95% CI, 52-77%) for the entire cohort. The median OS has not been reached. Grade 3/4 AEs were rare and consisted of hyperglycemia (4%), neutropenia (4%), thrombocytopenia (4%), and infusion reaction (1%). Although well tolerated, treatment with single-agent ganitumab failed to result in significant tumor responses among patients with metastatic well-differentiated carcinoid or pNET.
Keywords: carcinoid; neuroendocrine tumors.