In low-incidence countries, tuberculosis (TB) is now largely concentrated in high-risk groups such as migrants, homeless people, illicit drug users, alcoholics and prisoners. This has led to increased efforts to implement targeted active case finding for TB among specific populations. This review examines the evidence supporting active case finding in migrants and social risk groups, as well as the cost-effectiveness of interventions. While data from observational studies support active case finding in defined high-risk groups, further research to determine the effectiveness of specific tools and the cost-effectiveness of screening strategies is needed to inform evidence-based control methods in low-incidence countries. Inevitably, addressing TB in low-incidence countries will depend on effective disease control in high-burden countries.