Background: The association between endothelial progenitor cells (EPCs) at the time of percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) and the subsequent long-term clinical outcome remains undefined. To address this issue, a pre-specified analysis of the PROgenitor Cells role in Restenosis and progression of coronary ATherosclerosis after percutaneous coronary intervention (PROCREATION) study was done.
Methods and results: A total of 155 patients with stable angina treated with PCI had flow cytometry before PCI. Patients had a 5-year follow-up. Primary outcome was the composite of major adverse cardiac or cerebrovascular events (MACCE), that is, death, stroke, myocardial infarction, and revascularization. During follow-up, MACCE occurred in 65 of 155 patients (42%). There were no significant differences in clinical and angiographic variables between patients with or without MACCE, apart from a different extent of coronary atherosclerosis. The incidence of MACCE increased significantly over tertiles of CD34+/KDR+/CD45- cells and CD133+/KDR+/CD45- cells, with rates of 25%, 39%, and 69% (P=0.0001), and 26%, 44%, and 59% (P=0.003), respectively. On multivariate analysis it was estimated that the increase in CD34+/KDR+/CD45- cells was associated with a 35% higher risk for MACCE (hazard ratio [HR], 1.75; 95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.07-1.99; P=0.001), and the increase in CD133+/KDR+/CD45- cells was associated with a 25% higher risk for MACCE (HR, 1.35; 95% CI: 1.01-1.74; P=0.03).
Conclusions: Assessment of subpopulations of circulating EPCs in patients with stable angina treated with PCI can improve characterization of long-term prognosis (ClinicalTrials.gov: NCT01575431).