In 1971, Andermann and Andermann described an autosomal recessive syndrome found within the Charlevoix and the Saguenay populations (Quebec, Canada) characterized by agenesis of the corpus callosum (ACC) associated with motor and sensory neuropathy, mental retardation and dysmorphic features. A study of CT in 64 patients demonstrated a total ACC in 37 cases (57.8%), partial ACC in 6 cases (9.4%) and the presence of the corpus callosum in 21 cases (32.8%). The latter was confirmed by MRI in 3 cases. CT of patients without ACC revealed a high frequency of developmental or degenerative midline anomalies, particularly interhemispheric fissure enlargement and posterior fossa atrophy. The clinical presentation and the natural course of the neuropathy, the intellectual impairment and the behavioural manifestations are identical amongst individuals with or without ACC. Individuals with or without ACC are found within the same family and often within the same sibship. These observations support the hypothesis of a single genetic syndrome in which the constant manifestation is the motor and sensory neuropathy.