Telemetry-based oxygen sensor for continuous monitoring of kidney oxygenation in conscious rats

Am J Physiol Renal Physiol. 2013 Jun 15;304(12):F1471-80. doi: 10.1152/ajprenal.00662.2012. Epub 2013 Apr 10.


The precise roles of hypoxia in the initiation and progression of kidney disease remain unresolved. A major technical limitation has been the absence of methods allowing long-term measurement of kidney tissue oxygen tension (Po₂) in unrestrained animals. We developed a telemetric method for the measurement of kidney tissue Po₂ in unrestrained rats, using carbon paste electrodes (CPEs). After acute implantation in anesthetized rats, tissue Po₂ measured by CPE-telemetry in the inner cortex and medulla was in close agreement with that provided by the "gold standard" Clark electrode. The CPE-telemetry system could detect small changes in renal tissue Po₂ evoked by mild hypoxemia. In unanesthetized rats, CPE-telemetry provided stable measurements of medullary tissue Po₂ over days 5-19 after implantation. It also provided reproducible responses to systemic hypoxia and hyperoxia over this time period. There was little evidence of fibrosis or scarring after 3 wk of electrode implantation. However, because medullary Po₂ measured by CPE-telemetry was greater than that documented from previous studies in anesthetized animals, this method is presently best suited for monitoring relative changes rather than absolute values. Nevertheless, this new technology provides, for the first time, the opportunity to examine the temporal relationships between tissue hypoxia and the progression of renal disease.

Keywords: kidney; medulla; telemetry; tissue oxygen concentration.

Publication types

  • Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't

MeSH terms

  • Animals
  • Blood Gas Analysis
  • Carbon
  • Consciousness
  • Electrodes, Implanted*
  • Kidney / chemistry*
  • Male
  • Oxygen / analysis*
  • Partial Pressure
  • Rats
  • Rats, Sprague-Dawley
  • Rats, Wistar
  • Telemetry / instrumentation
  • Telemetry / methods*


  • Carbon
  • Oxygen