Comparative study of microbial-derived phenolic metabolites in human feces after intake of gin, red wine, and dealcoholized red wine

J Agric Food Chem. 2013 Apr 24;61(16):3909-15. doi: 10.1021/jf400678d. Epub 2013 Apr 11.


The analysis of microbial phenolic metabolites in fecal samples from in vivo studies is crucial to understanding the potential modulatory effects derived from polyphenol consumption and its overall health effects, particularly at the gut level. In this study, the composition of microbial phenolic metabolites in human feces collected after regular consumption of either red wine, dealcoholized red wine, or gin was analyzed by UPLC-ESI-MS/MS. Red wine interventions produce a change in the content of eight phenolic acids, which are probably derived from the catabolism of flavan-3-ols and anthocyanins, the main flavonoids in red wine. Moreover, alcohol seemed not to influence the formation of phenolic metabolites by the gut microbiota. A principal component analysis revealed large interindividual differences in the formation of microbial metabolites after each red wine polyphenol intervention, but not after the gin intervention, indicating differences in the gut microbial composition among subjects.

Publication types

  • Comparative Study
  • Randomized Controlled Trial
  • Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't

MeSH terms

  • Alcoholic Beverages / analysis*
  • Chromatography, High Pressure Liquid
  • Cross-Over Studies
  • Ethanol / pharmacology*
  • Feces / chemistry*
  • Feces / microbiology*
  • Flavonoids / analysis*
  • Flavonoids / metabolism
  • Humans
  • Middle Aged
  • Polyphenols / analysis
  • Polyphenols / metabolism
  • Spectrometry, Mass, Electrospray Ionization
  • Tandem Mass Spectrometry
  • Wine / analysis*


  • Flavonoids
  • Polyphenols
  • Ethanol