The purpose of this study was to assess the effects of consuming electrokinetically modified water (EMW) on attenuating muscle damage and improving functional recovery following a single bout of isokinetic resistance exercise. Subjects were randomly assigned to an EMW (n = 20) or a placebo control (n = 20) group. Subjects consumed EMW or placebo water daily for 23 days. On day 19 subjects completed an exercise protocol for the biceps brachii to induce muscle damage. The protocol consisted of three sets of 20 repetitions using concentric and eccentric contractions of the elbow flexors. Blood draw and clinical measurements were performed preexercise as well as 24, 48, and 96 h postexercise. Clinical measures included maximal isometric strength, muscle soreness, pain with elbow extension, relaxed elbow angle (RANG), and self-report arm disability. Plasma samples were analyzed to determine concentrations of creatine kinase (CK) and high-sensitivity C-reactive protein (hsCRP). Pain with elbow extension and self-report arm disability were significantly higher in the placebo group compared with the EMW group at 48 h (P < 0.01) and 96 h (P < 0.01) after exercise, while RANG was significantly higher in the EMW group compared with placebo at 48 h (P < 0.01) and 96 h (P < 0.01) after exercise. Similarly, plasma concentrations for hsCRP and CK were significantly lower in the EMW group compared with placebo at 48 h (P < 0.05) and 96 h (P < 0.01) after exercise. Oral consumption of EMW significantly reduced exercise-induced muscle damage and inflammation and improved functional recovery.
Keywords: charge-stabilized nanostructures; hydration; inflammation; isokinetic; muscle soreness.