Kolaviron protects against ethylene glycol monoethyl ether-induced toxicity in boar spermatozoa

Andrologia. 2014 May;46(4):399-407. doi: 10.1111/and.12095. Epub 2013 Apr 14.


This study investigated the ameliorative effects of kolaviron (a biflavonoid from the seed of Garcinia kola) and vitamin C on ethylene glycol monoethyl ether (EGEE)-induced oxidative damage in boar spermatozoa in vitro. EGEE (1.0 mm) was incubated with boar spermatozoa for 3 h with or without either kolaviron (50 and 100 μm) or vitamin C (1.0 mm). Spermatozoa parameters were determined hourly during the incubation period, whereas aminotransferases and alkaline phosphatase activities and oxidative stress indices were assessed after the incubation period. Results showed a time-dependent decline in spermatozoa motility and viability with significant elevation in total abnormalities in EGEE-treated spermatozoa. Exposure to EGEE resulted in significant increase in aminotransferases, alkaline phosphatase and superoxide dismutase (SOD) activities, whereas it markedly decreased glutathione (GSH) level, catalase (CAT) and glutathione S-transferase (GST) activities with concomitant increase in hydrogen peroxide (H2 O2 ) and malondialdehyde (MDA) levels. Pre-treatment of spermatozoa with kolaviron or vitamin C significantly decreased H2 O2 and MDA levels, improved spermatozoa characteristics and ameliorated oxidative damage in EGEE-treated spermatozoa. Taken together, EGEE exhibited its spermatotoxicity via induction of oxidative stress. The protective effects by kolaviron and vitamin C against EGEE-induced oxidative damage may be due to their intrinsic antioxidative potentials.

Keywords: Boar; ethylene glycol monoethyl ether (EGEE); kolaviron; oxidative stress; spermatotoxicity.

Publication types

  • Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't

MeSH terms

  • Alanine Transaminase / drug effects
  • Alkaline Phosphatase / drug effects
  • Animals
  • Ascorbic Acid / pharmacology
  • Aspartate Aminotransferases / drug effects
  • Catalase / metabolism
  • Ethylene Glycols / toxicity*
  • Flavonoids / therapeutic use*
  • Glutathione / metabolism
  • Glutathione Transferase / metabolism
  • Hydrogen Peroxide / metabolism
  • Lipid Peroxidation / drug effects
  • Male
  • Malondialdehyde / metabolism
  • Oxidative Stress / drug effects*
  • Sperm Motility / drug effects
  • Spermatozoa / drug effects*
  • Superoxide Dismutase / drug effects
  • Swine


  • Ethylene Glycols
  • Flavonoids
  • Malondialdehyde
  • Hydrogen Peroxide
  • Catalase
  • Superoxide Dismutase
  • Glutathione Transferase
  • Aspartate Aminotransferases
  • Alanine Transaminase
  • Alkaline Phosphatase
  • Glutathione
  • 2-ethoxyethanol
  • Ascorbic Acid
  • kolaviron