Objectives: To prospectively evaluate the effect of different dietary management strategies on the rate of acquisition of tolerance in children with cow's milk allergy (CMA).
Study design: Otherwise healthy children (aged 1-12 months) diagnosed with CMA were prospectively evaluated. The study population was divided into 5 groups based upon the formula used for management: (1) extensively hydrolyzed casein formula ([EHCF], n = 55); (2) EHCF + Lactobacillus rhamnosus GG [LGG], n = 71); (3) hydrolyzed rice formula (RHF, n = 46); (4) soy formula (n = 55); and (5) amino acid based formula (n = 33). A food challenge was performed after 12 months to assess acquisition of tolerance.
Results: Two hundred sixty children were evaluated (167 male, 64.2%; age 5.92 months, 95% CI 5.48-6.37; body weight 6.66 kg, 95% CI 6.41-6.91; IgE-mediated CMA 111, 42.7%). The rate of children acquiring oral tolerance after 12 months was significantly higher (P < .05) in the groups receiving EHCF (43.6%) or EHCF + LGG (78.9%) compared with the other groups: RHF (32.6%), soy formula (23.6%), and amino acid based formula (18.2%). Binary regression analysis coefficient (B) revealed that the rate of patients acquiring tolerance at the end of the study was influenced by 2 factors: (1) IgE-mediated mechanism (B -2.05, OR 0.12, 95% CI 0.06-0.26; P < .001); and (2) formula choice, such that those receiving either EHCF (B 1.48, OR 4.41, 95% CI 1.44-13.48; P = .009) or EHCF + LGG (B 3.35, OR 28.62, 95% CI 8.72-93.93; P < .001).
Conclusions: EHCF accelerates tolerance acquisition in children with CMA if compared with other dietetic choices. This effect is augmented by LGG.
Trial registration: ClinicalTrials.gov NCT01634490.
Keywords: AAF; APT; Amino acid based formula; Atopy patch testing; B; Binary regression analysis coefficient; CM; CMA; CMP; Cow milk; Cow milk proteins; Cow's milk allergy; DBPCFC; Double-blind placebo-controlled food challenge; EHCF; Extensively hydrolyzed casein formula; Hydrolyzed rice formula; LGG; Lactobacillus rhamnosus GG; RHF; SF; SPT; Skin prick testing; Soy formula.
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