Manipulating the PD-1 pathway to improve immunity

Curr Opin Immunol. 2013 Jun;25(3):381-8. doi: 10.1016/j.coi.2013.03.003. Epub 2013 Apr 9.


PD-1 is an inhibitory receptor induced in T cells by antigen stimulation and sustained PD-1 expression plays a key role in T cell dysfunction. Blocking PD-1 signaling rescues exhausted T cells and is an effective treatment for chronic infections and cancer. Nonetheless, combining PD-1 pathway blockade to therapeutic vaccination should further improve T cell rescue. PD-1 is induced shortly after T cell priming, but little is known about the role of PD-1 in the initiation of immune responses. In addition, the PD-1 pathway may also modulate humoral responses, since both B cells and Tfh cells express PD-1. Therefore, even though much progress has been achieved by manipulation of the PD-1 pathway to rescue exhausted T cells, this powerful immunotherapy could still be further exploited.

Publication types

  • Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural
  • Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • Review

MeSH terms

  • Animals
  • Gene Expression Regulation
  • Humans
  • Ligands
  • Programmed Cell Death 1 Receptor / genetics
  • Programmed Cell Death 1 Receptor / immunology*
  • Signal Transduction*
  • T-Lymphocytes / immunology
  • Vaccination


  • Ligands
  • Programmed Cell Death 1 Receptor