This study compared the efficacy of moxifloxacin and levofloxacin in the treatment of multidrug-resistant tuberculosis (MDR-TB) in Shanghai, China. A retrospective analysis of 158 patients with MDR-TB receiving either moxifloxacin- or levofloxacin-containing regimens was performed. Clinical data from patients were subjected to univariate analysis, stratification and multiple logistic regression to compare the roles of moxifloxacin and levofloxacin in multidrug regimens. In total, 72 patients received 400mg of moxifloxacin once daily and 86 patients received 509.9 ± 79.4 mg (mean ± standard deviation) of levofloxacin once daily together with similar active agents for similar durations. The times to sputum culture conversion were similar. Adverse reactions occurred at comparable rates. The combined treatment success rate was 60.1%, being higher among ofloxacin-susceptible than ofloxacin-resistant cases (67.5% vs. 52.0%; P < 0.05). The success rates for the moxifloxacin group were 65.3% (overall), 77.1% (ofloxacin-susceptible cases) and 54.1% (ofloxacin-resistant cases) in comparison with 55.8%, 60.4% and 50.0%, respectively, for the levofloxacin group. No demographic, clinical, bacteriological or treatment characteristics were independent predictors of favourable outcome. Fourteen patients from the moxifloxacin group and twelve patients from the levofloxacin group had bacteriological relapse after treatment cessation. In conclusion, compared with levofloxacin, moxifloxacin did not show superior efficacy when incorporated into multidrug regimens used for the treatment of MDR-TB.
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