In recent years, multiple sclerosis (MS) research has progressed on several fronts, prompting numerous clinical trials, primarily for immunotherapeutics. Although several new therapies have been disappointing and some were revealed to have devastating side effects, others have shown benefits and all have generated valuable knowledge about the progression of MS, the key contributors to pathogenesis, and on natural surveillance mechanisms for brain infections. This makes now a useful time to take stock of recent advances in developing MS treatments and consider new approaches for adding information where the gaps are greatest - mainly in understanding the degenerative processes responsible for most of the long-term disability. Here, we summarize currently accepted therapeutic principles and the drugs in late stages of development, as well as spotlighting potential novel openings for future research.
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