Ureaplasma is an organism with low virulence and is a commensal of the lower genito-urinary tract in females. From here, it can gain entry in the amniotic fluid to cause inflammation in the amniotic compartment during pregnancy. Ureaplasma spp. are the most common organisms isolated from women with chorioamnionitis. Ureaplasma spp. are associated with increased risk for preterm labor and morbidity in the preterm neonate. However, there is some controversy regarding the importance of Ureaplasma in the pathogenesis of bronchopulmonary dysplasia (BPD). This article will review the microbiology of Ureaplasma, host innate immune responses, and the pathology of lung injury in animal models of Ureaplasma chorioamnionitis. We will review epidemiological studies of Ureaplasma and BPD in preterm infants and efficacy of antibiotics in preventing preterm labor and BPD.
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