Objectives: The study objective was to validate a new high-sensitivity troponin I (hs-TnI) assay in a clinical protocol for assessing patients who present to the emergency department with chest pain.
Background: Protocols using sensitive troponin assays can accelerate the rule out of acute myocardial infarction in patients with low-risk (suspected) acute coronary syndrome (ACS).
Methods: This study evaluated 2 prospective cohorts of patients in the emergency department with ACS in an accelerated diagnostic pathway integrating 0- and 2-h hs-TnI results, Thrombolysis In Myocardial Infarction (TIMI) risk scores, and electrocardiography. Strategies to identify low-risk patients incorporated TIMI risk scores= 0 or ≤ 1. The primary endpoint was a major adverse cardiac event (MACE) within 30 days.
Results: In the primary cohort, 1,635 patients were recruited and had 30-day follow-up. A total of 247 patients (15.1%) had a MACE. The finding of no ischemic electrocardiogram and hs-TnI ≤ 26.2 ng/l with the TIMI = 0 and TIMI ≤ 1 pathways, respectively, classified 19.6% (n = 320) and 41.5% (n = 678) of these patients as low risk; 0% (n = 0) and 0.8% (n = 2) had a MACE, respectively. In the secondary cohort, 909 patients were recruited. A total of 156 patients (17.2%) had a MACE. The TIMI = 0 and TIMI ≤ 1 pathways classified 25.3% (n = 230) and 38.6% (n = 351), respectively, of these patients as low risk; 0% (n = 0) and 0.8% (n = 1) had a MACE, respectively. Sensitivity, specificity, and negative predictive value for TIMI = 0 in the primary cohort were 100% (95% confidence interval [CI]: 98.5% to 100%), 23.1% (95% CI: 20.9% to 25.3%), and 100% (95% CI: 98.8% to 100%), respectively. Sensitivity, specificity, and negative predictive value for TIMI ≤ 1 in the primary cohort were 99.2 (95% CI: 97.1 to 99.8), 48.7 (95% CI: 46.1 to 51.3), and 99.7 (95% CI: 98.9 to 99.9), respectively. Sensitivity, specificity, and negative value for TIMI ≤ 1 in the secondary cohort were 99.4% (95% CI: 96.5 to 100), 46.5% (95% CI: 42.9 to 50.1), and 99.7% (95% CI: 98.4 to 100), respectively.
Conclusions: An early-discharge strategy using an hs-TnI assay and TIMI score ≤ 1 had similar safety as previously reported, with the potential to decrease the observation periods and admissions for approximately 40% of patients with suspected ACS. (Advantageous Predictors of Acute Coronary Syndromes Evaluation [APACE] Study, NCT00470587; A 2 hr Accelerated Diagnostic Protocol to Assess patients with chest Pain symptoms using contemporary Troponins as the only biomarker [ADAPT]: a prospective observational validation study, ACTRN12611001069943).
Keywords: ACS; ADAPT; ADP; AMI; APACE; CI; ECG; MACE; TIMI; Thrombolysis In Myocardial Infarction; accelerated diagnostic protocol; acute coronary syndrome(s); acute myocardial infarction; chest pain; confidence interval; electrocardiography; high-sensitivity troponin I; hs-TnI; major adverse cardiac event(s).
Copyright © 2013 American College of Cardiology Foundation. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.