Stem cell ageing underlies the ageing of tissues, especially those with a high cellular turnover. There is growing evidence that the ageing of the immune system is initiated at the very top of the haematopoietic hierarchy and that the ageing of haematopoietic stem cells (HSCs) directly contributes to changes in the immune system, referred to as immunosenescence. In this Review, we summarize the phenotypes of ageing HSCs and discuss how the cell-intrinsic and cell-extrinsic mechanisms of HSC ageing might promote immunosenescence. Stem cell ageing has long been considered to be irreversible. However, recent findings indicate that several molecular pathways could be targeted to rejuvenate HSCs and thus to reverse some aspects of immunosenescence.