1Alpha,25-dihydroxyvitamin D3 [1,25(OH)2D3], the biologically active form of vitamin D3, is a pleiotropic hormone that exerts its effects on a wide range of tissues, resulting in different biological responses such as anticancer activity. It is the ligand of the vitamin D receptor (VDR), a nuclear receptor with transactivating capacity. We demonstrated in this study that 1,25(OH)2D3 induces PDZ-LIM domain-containing protein 2 (PDLIM2) expression. PDLIM2 is an adaptor molecule that links different components of the cytoskeleton, and was recently shown to be repressed in human breast cancer cells by hypermethylation of regulatory promoter regions, leading to enhanced tumorigenicity. We demonstrated that PDLIM2 was a direct target gene of 1,25(OH)2D3; its upregulation was VDR-dependent and a functional VDRE in the promoter was identified. Moreover, 1,25(OH)2D3 induced demethylation of the PDLIM2 promoter, leading to enhanced transcription. Finally, PDLIM2 was found to be crucial for 1,25(OH)2D3-induced cell adhesion and for mediating the ability of 1,25(OH)2D3 to suppress cancer cell migration and invasion. This study provides mechanistic insights into the anticancer activities of 1,25(OH)2D3 in human breast cancer cells.