Background: Growing evidence suggests a cardioprotective role of omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA). However, the exact mechanisms underlying the effects of omega-3 PUFA in humans have not yet been fully clarified.
Purpose: We sought to evaluate omega-3 PUFA-mediated effects on adipokines in patients with stable coronary artery disease (CAD) undergoing elective percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI).
Methods: We conducted a prospective, double-blind, placebo-controlled, randomized study, in which adiponectin, leptin and resistin were determined at baseline, 3-5 days and 30 days during administration of omega-3 PUFA 1 g/day (n=20) or placebo (n=28).
Results: As compared to controls administration of omega-3 PUFA resulted in increase of adiponectin by 13.4% (P<0.0001), reduction of leptin by 22% (P<0.0001) and increase of adiponectin to leptin (A/L) ratio by 45.5% (P<0.0001) at 30 days, but not at 3-5 days. Compared with placebo adiponectin was 12.7% higher (P=0.0042), leptin was 16.7% lower (P<0.0001) and A/L ratio was 33.3% higher (P<0.0001) in the omega-3 PUFA group at 30 days. Resistin decreased similarly in both groups after 1 month, without intergroup differences (P=0.32). The multivariate model showed that the independent predictors of changes in adiponectin at 1 month (P<0.001) were: omega-3 PUFA treatment, baseline platelet count, total cholesterol and those in leptin (P<0.0001) were: omega-3 PUFA treatment and waist circumference. Independent predictors of A/L ratio changes (P<0.0001) were: assigned treatment, current smoking and hyperlipidemia.
Conclusions: In high risk stable coronary patients after PCI omega-3 PUFA supplementation improves adipokine profile in circulating blood. This might be a novel, favourable mechanism of omega-3 PUFA action.