Integrating pharmacokinetics, pharmacodynamics and MIC distributions to assess changing antimicrobial activity against clinical isolates of Pseudomonas aeruginosa causing infections in Canadian hospitals (CANWARD)

J Antimicrob Chemother. 2013 May;68 Suppl 1:i67-72. doi: 10.1093/jac/dkt028.


Objectives: To study antimicrobial pharmacodynamic (PD) activity over time against clinical isolates of Pseudomonas aeruginosa in Canadian hospitals.

Methods: Integrated pharmacokinetic (PK)/PD analyses with Monte Carlo simulations were used to study cefepime, meropenem, piperacillin/tazobactam, ciprofloxacin, amikacin, gentamicin and colistin. Profiles of P. aeruginosa infections were modelled using CANWARD data from January 2007 to June 2012 inclusive. The probability of target attainment (PTA) was the proportion of cases achieving a %ƒT>MIC ≥ 50% for cefepime, meropenem and piperacillin/tazobactam, an ƒAUC/MIC ≥ 90 for ciprofloxacin and the aminoglycosides, and a total AUC/MIC ≥ 60 for colistin.

Results: Some 2126 P. aeruginosa isolates were identified. There were no significant trends over time in the PTA for cefepime (0.93-1.0), meropenem (0.89-0.92) or piperacillin/tazobactam (0.74-0.79) (data shown for the highest recommended doses). The PD activity for ciprofloxacin (PTA 0.48-0.64) was variable. There were notable improvements in the PTA for amikacin (from 0.21 to 0.55, P = 0.027), gentamicin (from 0.10 to 0.51, P = 0.035) and colistin (from 0.04 to ~0.20, P = 0.05), which were not reliably detected by MIC indices. There was a decline over time in the PTA for piperacillin/tazobactam from 0.73 to 0.61 against P. aeruginosa isolated from intensive care units (ICUs) (Pearson correlation coefficient -0.99, P = 0.003). Neither MIC50 nor MIC90 detected this reduction in PD activity.

Conclusions: The overall PD activity against P. aeruginosa was stable from 2007 to 2012 for cefepime, meropenem and piperacillin/tazobactam, was variable and unreliable for ciprofloxacin, and improved significantly but remained relatively low for the aminoglycosides and colistin. There was a progressive reduction over time in the PD activity of piperacillin/tazobactam against ICU isolates, which was not detected by simply assessing MIC indices.

MeSH terms

  • Anti-Infective Agents / administration & dosage
  • Anti-Infective Agents / pharmacokinetics
  • Anti-Infective Agents / pharmacology*
  • Canada / epidemiology
  • Cross Infection*
  • Humans
  • Microbial Sensitivity Tests
  • Monte Carlo Method
  • Pseudomonas Infections / epidemiology*
  • Pseudomonas Infections / microbiology*
  • Pseudomonas aeruginosa / drug effects*
  • Pseudomonas aeruginosa / isolation & purification


  • Anti-Infective Agents