Purpose: A phase 1 study was initiated to determine the safety, potential effectiveness, and maximal tolerated dose and recommended phase 2 dose of efatutazone and paclitaxel in anaplastic thyroid cancer.
Experimental design: Patients received efatutazone (0.15, 0.3, or 0.5 mg) orally twice daily and then paclitaxel every 3 weeks. Patient tolerance and outcomes were assessed, as were serum efatutazone pharmacokinetics.
Results: Ten of 15 patients were women. Median age was 59 years. Seven patients received 0.15 mg of efatutazone, 6 patients received 0.3 mg, and 2 patients received 0.5 mg. One patient receiving 0.3 mg of efatutazone had a partial response from day 69 to day 175; 7 patients attained stable disease. Median times to progression were 48 and 68 days in patients receiving 0.15 mg of efatutazone and 0.3 mg of efatutazone, respectively; corresponding median survival was 98 vs 138 days. The median peak efatutazone blood level was 8.6 ng/mL for 0.15-mg dosing vs 22.0 ng/mL for 0.3-mg twice daily dosing. Ten patients had grade 3 or greater adverse events (Common Terminology Criteria for Adverse Events), with 2 of these (anemia and edema) related to efatutazone. Thirteen events of edema were reported in 8 patients, with 2 of grade 3 or greater. Eight patients had ≥1 serious adverse event, with 1 of these (anemia) attributed to efatutazone and 1 (anaphylactic reaction) related to paclitaxel. The maximal tolerated dose was not achieved. Angiopoietin-like 4 was induced by efatutazone in tissue biopsy samples of 2 patients.
Conclusions: Efatutazone and paclitaxel in combination were safe and tolerated and had biologic activity.