LDL receptor and its family members serve as the cellular receptors for vesicular stomatitis virus

Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2013 Apr 30;110(18):7306-11. doi: 10.1073/pnas.1214441110. Epub 2013 Apr 15.


Vesicular stomatitis virus (VSV) exhibits a remarkably robust and pantropic infectivity, mediated by its coat protein, VSV-G. Using this property, recombinant forms of VSV and VSV-G-pseudotyped viral vectors are being developed for gene therapy, vaccination, and viral oncolysis and are extensively used for gene transduction in vivo and in vitro. The broad tropism of VSV suggests that it enters cells through a highly ubiquitous receptor, whose identity has so far remained elusive. Here we show that the LDL receptor (LDLR) serves as the major entry port of VSV and of VSV-G-pseudotyped lentiviral vectors in human and mouse cells, whereas other LDLR family members serve as alternative receptors. The widespread expression of LDLR family members accounts for the pantropism of VSV and for the broad applicability of VSV-G-pseudotyped viral vectors for gene transduction.

Publication types

  • Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't

MeSH terms

  • Animals
  • Cattle
  • Endocytosis
  • Fibroblasts / cytology
  • Fibroblasts / virology
  • Genetic Vectors / genetics
  • Humans
  • Lentivirus / genetics
  • Mice
  • Protein Binding
  • Receptors, LDL / metabolism*
  • Receptors, Virus / metabolism*
  • Solubility
  • Transduction, Genetic
  • Vesicular stomatitis Indiana virus / metabolism*
  • Vesicular stomatitis Indiana virus / pathogenicity
  • Virus Internalization


  • Receptors, LDL
  • Receptors, Virus