A Systematic Review of Anti-Rotavirus Serum IgA Antibody Titer as a Potential Correlate of Rotavirus Vaccine Efficacy

J Infect Dis. 2013 Jul 15;208(2):284-94. doi: 10.1093/infdis/jit166. Epub 2013 Apr 17.

Abstract

Background: Identifying an immunological correlate of protection for rotavirus vaccines (Rotarix [RV1] and RotaTeq [RV5]) would substantially facilitate testing of interventions for improving efficacy in developing countries and evaluating additional candidate rotavirus vaccines.

Methods: We accessed PubMed and ClinicalTrials.gov to identify immunogenicity and efficacy trials for RV1 and RV5 to correlate anti-rotavirus serum immunoglobulin A (IgA) antibody titers vs efficacy in regions stratified by all-cause under-5 mortality rates (u5MR). We established a cutoff point for IgA geometric mean concentration or titer (GMC) that predicted lower efficacy and calculated pooled vaccine efficacy among countries with high vs low IgA titers.

Findings: We observed an inverse correlation between u5MR and IgA titers for RV1 (r(2) = 0.72; P < .001 and RV5 (r(2) = 0.66; P < .001) and between efficacy and IgA titers for both vaccines (r(2) = 0.56; P = .005). Postimmunization anti-rotavirus IgA GMC <90 were associated with decline in vaccine efficacy. Efficacy during first 2 years of life was significantly lower among countries with IgA GMC < 90 (44%; 95% confidence interval [CI], 30-55) compared to countries with GMC > 90 (85%; 95% CI, 82-88).

Interpretation: We observed a significant correlation between IgA titers and rotavirus vaccine efficacy and hypothesize that a critical level of IgA antibody titer is associated with a sufficient level of sustained protection after rotavirus vaccination.

Keywords: antibody; diarrhea; efficacy; immunity; protection; rotavirus; vaccines.

Publication types

  • Review
  • Systematic Review

MeSH terms

  • Antibodies, Viral / blood
  • Antibody Formation / immunology*
  • Humans
  • Immunoglobulin A / blood
  • Immunoglobulin A / immunology*
  • Rotavirus / immunology*
  • Rotavirus Infections / immunology*
  • Rotavirus Infections / prevention & control*
  • Rotavirus Vaccines / immunology*
  • Vaccines, Attenuated / immunology

Substances

  • Antibodies, Viral
  • Immunoglobulin A
  • RIX4414 vaccine
  • RotaTeq
  • Rotavirus Vaccines
  • Vaccines, Attenuated