Glucose is an energy source that also controls the expression of key genes involved in energetic metabolism through the glucose-signaling transcription factor carbohydrate response element-binding protein (ChREBP). ChREBP has recently emerged as a central regulator of glycolysis and de novo fatty acid synthesis in liver, but new evidence shows that it plays a broader and crucial role in various processes, ranging from glucolipotoxicity to apoptosis and/or proliferation in specific cell types. However, several aspects of ChREBP activation by glucose metabolites are currently controversial, as well as the effects of activating or inhibiting ChREBP, on insulin sensitivity, which might depend on genetic, dietary or environmental factors. Thus, much remains to be elucidated. Here, we summarize our current understanding of the regulation and function of this fascinating transcription factor.
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