Background: Heart failure (HF) is a serious complication and often the cause of death in adults with congenital heart disease (CHD). Therefore, our aims were to determine the frequency of HF-admissions, and to assess risk factors of first HF-admission and of mortality after first HF-admission in adults with CHD.
Methods: The Dutch CONCOR registry was linked to the Hospital Discharge Registry and National Mortality Registry to obtain data on HF-admissions and mortality. Risk factors for both HF-admission and mortality were assessed using Cox regression models.
Results: Of 10,808 adult patients (49% male), 274 (2.5%) were admitted for HF during a median follow-up period of 21 years. The incidence of first HF-admission was 1.2 per 1000 patient-years, but the incidence of HF itself will be higher. Main defect, multiple defects, and surgical interventions in childhood were identified as independent risk factors of HF-admission. Patients admitted for HF had a five-fold higher risk of mortality than patients not admitted (hazard ratio (HR)=5.3; 95% confidence interval 4.2-6.9). One- and three-year mortality after first HF-admission were 24% and 35% respectively. Independent risk factors for three-year mortality after first HF-admission were male gender, pacemaker implantation, admission duration, non-cardiac medication use and high serum creatinine.
Conclusions: The incidence of HF-admission in adults with CHD is 1.2 per 1000 patient-years. Mortality risk is substantially increased after HF-admission, which emphasises the importance to identify patients at high risk of HF-admission. These patients might benefit from closer follow-up and earlier medical interventions. The presented risk factors may facilitate surveillance.
Keywords: Admission; Adults; Congenital heart disease; Heart failure; Mortality.
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