Classical and novel biomarkers for cardiovascular risk prediction in the United States

J Epidemiol. 2013;23(3):158-62. doi: 10.2188/jea.je20120157. Epub 2013 Apr 20.


Cardiovascular risk prediction models based on classical risk factors identified in epidemiologic cohort studies are useful in primary prevention of cardiovascular disease in individuals. This article briefly reviews aspects of cardiovascular risk prediction in the United States and efforts to evaluate novel risk factors. Even though many novel risk markers have been found to be associated with cardiovascular disease, few appear to improve risk prediction beyond the powerful, classical risk factors. A recent US consensus panel concluded that clinical measurement of certain novel markers for risk prediction was reasonable, namely, hemoglobin A1c (in all adults), microalbuminuria (in patients with hypertension or diabetes), and C-reactive protein, lipoprotein-associated phospholipase, coronary calcium, carotid intima-media thickness, and ankle/brachial index (in patients deemed to be at intermediate cardiovascular risk, based on traditional risk factors).

Publication types

  • Review

MeSH terms

  • Biomarkers*
  • Cardiovascular Diseases / epidemiology*
  • Humans
  • Risk Factors
  • United States / epidemiology


  • Biomarkers