Effects of STA-MCA anastomosis on two patients with neovascular glaucoma due to occlusion of the internal carotid artery are presented. Both patients improved in visual acuity and central retinal artery pressure as well as in signs of transient ischaemic attack. Postoperative angiography showed a marked decrease in collateral flow through the ophthalmic artery, which is reversed from the normal direction, with the development of blood flow through the anastomosis. Discussion is offered indicating that the lack of collateral flow through both the anterior and posterior communicating arteries is important in addition to occlusion of the internal carotid artery in order to produce full-blown ischaemic oculopathy such as venous stasis retinopathy, neovascular glaucoma or rubeosis iridis. It is stressed that EC-IC bypass surgery should be performed soon after the appearance of ischaemia and before the development of neovascular glaucoma or rubeosis iridis in order to obtain normal vision. In ischaemic oculopathy the results of EC-IC bypass can be evaluated objectively and quantitatively by many noninvasive neuroophthalmological tests which are important in discussing the efficacy of the bypass surgery.