Identification of the hemodynamic modulators and hemodynamic status in uncontrolled hypertensive patients

Blood Press. 2013 Dec;22(6):362-70. doi: 10.3109/08037051.2013.782900. Epub 2013 Apr 23.


Only 20-30% out of the treated hypertensive patients in Europe are achieving blood pressure (BP) control. Among other recognized factors, these poor results could be attributable to the fact that for many doctors it is very difficult to detect which is the predominant hemodynamic cause of the hypertension (hypervolemia, hyperinotropy or vasoconstriction). The aim of the study was to use non-invasive thoracic electrical bioimpedance (TEB) to evaluate hemodynamic modulators and subsequent hemodynamic status in uncontrolled hypertensive patients, receiving at least two antihypertensive drugs. A number of 134 uncontrolled hypertensive patients with essential hypertension were evaluated in nine European Hypertension Excellence centers by means of TEB (the HOTMAN(®) System). Baseline office systolic and diastolic BP averaged 156/92 mmHg. Hemodynamic measurements show that almost all patients (98.5%) presented at least one altered hemodynamic modulator: intravascular hypervolemia (96.4%) and/or hypoinotropy (42.5%) and/or vasoconstriction (49.3%). Eleven combinations of hemodynamic modulators were present in the study population, the most common being concomitant hypervolemia, hypoinotropy and vasoconstriction in 51(38%) patients. Six different hemodynamic states (pairs of mean arterial pressure and stroke index) were found. Data suggest that there is a strong relation between hypertension and abnormal hemodynamic modulators. This method might be helpful for treatment individualization of hypertensive patients.

Publication types

  • Multicenter Study
  • Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't

MeSH terms

  • Antihypertensive Agents / therapeutic use*
  • Blood Pressure Determination
  • Blood Pressure Monitoring, Ambulatory / methods
  • Essential Hypertension
  • Female
  • Hemodynamics
  • Humans
  • Hypertension / drug therapy*
  • Hypertension / metabolism*
  • Hypertension / physiopathology
  • Male


  • Antihypertensive Agents